Prophetic Guidelines for Protection And Safety from Trials and Misguidance – al-’Allaamah Rabee’ Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee

lubaabbookIndeed, I advise myself and you with the taqwaa [1] of Allaah and ikhlaas (sincerity) [2] to Him and steadfastness upon the truth and holding fast to the Book and the Sunnah and that which the Salafus-Saalih were upon in terms of beliefs, acts of worship, manhaj (methodology) and moral character. I counsel you with these matters and advise that you give them the utmost importance.  You must direct your attention to them and form the mutual bonds of brotherhood amongst yourselves and you must inculcate mutual love amongst yourselves.  You must utilize the causes the mutual love, affection and unity and you must distance yourselves from stirring up trials and dilemmas.  And you must distance yourselves from the causes of disagreement amongst yourselves.  So such causes are many, so avoid them.

And strive to memorize the Book of Allaah and whatever you are able from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and study the books of the recognized people of knowledge as well as the writings of the recognized Imaams from the Imaams of the Sunnah.  And distance yourselves from the books of desires and misguidance, because many of those who follow up and read the likes of these books and audio recordings fall into deviations.

Indeed, the Salaf warned against such perils.  The books and audio recordings of fitan (trials, tribulations) and innovations cause many of the people to fall into errors and mistakes.  And the Salaf used to warn against the books of the people of misguidance.  Rather, the Companions (radiyallaahu ’anhum) burned some of the masaahif (written copies of the Qur‘aan) in order to unite the Ummah upon one mushaf.

So there are many fallacies and theories that many of the people use to deceive some of the youth.  One such fallacy is the statement that: We will read all of the books, including the books of misguidance and we will take the truth and abandon the falsehood from them.

And the reality is that this is a trap and an artifice set to ensnare the Salafee youth.  So the youth who does not have a firm grasp of the knowledge and he is not well versed in the Salafee manhaj, he becomes prone to error and deviation when he reads the books of the people of misguidance and falsehood.

And many of the youth have actually been deceived by this cunning statement.  So they begin to read and listen and the end result is deviation.

And the Messenger (’alayhis-salaatu was-salaam) advised that during the days of disagreements and splitting we must hold fast to his Sunnah and his guidance and the Sunnah and guidance of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.

And the individual will not obtain the knowledge of the Sunnah and guidance of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the guidance of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, except by exerting all of his effort in learning this Sunnah and this guidance and by turning his back to the statements of the dissenters and renegades.

So strive your utmost in learning the Sunnah and guidance of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and hold fast to it and bite onto it with your molar teeth and beware of newly invented affairs, as our Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has advised. [3] So by Allaah, this is the way to escape the trials and in it is the safety.  And that is the ark of salvation, may Allaah bless you.

So these are the Prophetic guidelines so revere and respect them.  And know that opposing them leads to deviation – and refuge is sought with Allaah.  Not being concerned with them, not giving them importance and not being mindful of them; all of that leads to deviation and falling into newly invented affairs.  So the individual is not safe from falling into the newly invented affairs, except if he holds fast to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the guidance of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (radiyallaahu ’anhum).

And that cannot occur, except by serious study and mindfulness and full comprehension of this Sunnah in the areas of ’aqeedah (creed), ’ibaadah (worship), manhaj (methodology) and in all fields of life.  And ignorance of that or carelessness in it leads to falling into innovations and misguidance, which are the newly invented affairs mentioned in the hadeeth, “And the most evil of affairs are the newly invented ones,” [4] as occurs in the hadeeth of Jaabir (radiyallaahu ’anhu) collected in Saheeh Muslim.

So it is upon you to take these advices and counsels and warnings from the noble Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and with that our beliefs and methodologies and moral character will remain safe if Allaah so wills.

And I advise you to maintain amongst yourselves mutual friendship, mercy and affection.  And be zealous taking to the good and blessed means that bring about unity and love and distance yourselves from the causes of mutual hatred, jealousy, differing and whatever resembles that from that which has occurred amongst many of the youth.

Hold fast to calling to Allaah the Glorified and Exalted with wisdom and a good admonition.  Call the people: people of innovation and desires and partisanship and the Jews and the Christians and other than them.  Call them to Allaah with wisdom and a good admonition and proofs and evidence.  “That Allaah guides a single man through you is better for you than red camels.” [5]

And strive to be upon steadfastness with regards to this magnificent manhaj in the manner to which we have alluded.  And strive to guide the people.  And that cannot occur, except if you first arm yourselves with knowledge and arm yourselves with the wisdom, which is accompanied by proof and evidence.

And the people are in dire need of this goodness, which is exemplified by the Salafee manhaj, which emanates from the Book of Allaah and from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).  And if the Muslims were to hold fast to this manhaj in truth, then you would surely see many people from these nations accepting Islaam and taking to it.

However, many of the Muslims who live amongst the Europeans and the Americans and others than them have deviations in their beliefs, their acts of worship, their moral character and in the rest of their dealings.  These deviations have disfigured the image and beauty of Islaam and they have run the people away.  If they were to present the real image of Islaam to the people, then you would see how they would rush to accept Islaam.

However, we say with great regret, as it was said by other than us: The Muslims have distorted Islaam and have run the enemies of Islaam away from it and from themselves.  That goes back to the ignorance or misguidance that many are living in from the sects that become widespread in those lands and it is due to the evil dealings and evil moral character which gives others a distorted view of Islaam.  So exemplify Islaam, as it is said.  And implement Islaam as a Religion and a creed and moral code of behaviour.  If Allaah so wills, Allaah will guide many of the enemies of Islaam, such as the Christians and the Jews at your hands.  Likewise, people will turn from all direction towards the truth the correct path, from those who are currently deviated by these sects within which you live and work and about whom many of you have complained.

We ask Allaah to unite between our hearts and to take us by our forelocks to the truth and to goodness.  Indeed, our Lord hears the supplication. [6]

Endnotes:

[1]: Translator’s Note: Talq Ibn Habeeb (d.100H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Taqwaa is acting in obedience to Allaah, hoping in His mercy, upon guidance from Him; and taqwaa is leaving acts of disobedience to Allaah out of fear of Him, upon guidance from Him.”  Related by Ibn Abee Shaybah in Kitaab al-Eemaan (no. 99).  It was declared saheeh by al-Albaanee in his checking of the same book.

[2]: Translator’s Note: Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Due to this, the Imaams of the Salaf (rahimahumullaah) had a consensus upon these two fundamental principles.  So al-Fuḍayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) commented concerning the statement of Allaah the Blessed and Exalted, “So that He may test which of you is best in deed.” [Sooratul-Mulk 67:2] He said, “It is that which is most sincere and most correct.”  So it was said, “O Abaa ’Alee!  What is most sincere and most correct?”  So he replied, ‘The deed that is correct but not sincere is not accepted.  And if it is sincere but not correct, then it is likewise not accepted; not until it is both sincere and correct.  And sincere means that it must be done only for the sake of Allaah and correct means that it must be in accordance to the Sunnah.”  Refer to Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (3/124) of Ibn Taymiyyah.

[3]: Translator’s Note: This is an allusion to the well-known hadeeth: From al-’Irbaad Ibn Saariyah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) admonished us with an intense sermon which caused the hearts to tremble and the eyes to shed tears, so we said, “O Messenger of Allaah!  It seems that this is a farewell sermon, so advise us.”  He replied, “I advise you with the fear of Allaah and to listen and obey even if the one granted authority over you is a slave.  So whoever lives long amongst you will see many disagreements.  So hold fast to my Sunnah and the way of the Rightly Guided Caliphs after me.  Bite onto that with your molar teeth and beware of the newly invented affairs, since every innovation is misguidance.”  Related by Aboo Daawood (no. 4607) and at-Tirmidhee (no. 2676), Ibn Maajah (no. 42-43).  It was declared saheeh by al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 2549).

[4]: Related by Muslim (no. 867), from the hadeeth of Jaabir Ibn ’Abdullaah (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[5]: Related by al-Bukhaaree (no. 2942) and Muslim (no. 2406), from the hadeeth of Sahl Ibn Sad (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[6]: Refer to al-Lubaab min Majmoo’ Nasaa‘ih wa Tawjeehaat ash-Shaykh Rabee’ lish-Shabaab (p.275-279), the al-Miraathun-Nabawee printing.

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

Shaykh Ubayd al-Jaabiree on the Charlie Hebdo Shootings in Paris

[Q]: A few days ago, a number of cartoonists who insulted the noble Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and journalists and employees of the Charlie Hebdo newspaper were killed in Paris.  Likewise, two men and a woman from the police force were killed.  And the individuals who carried out these criminal acts have not yet been caught.  However, video clips have emerged in which some of the criminals praise this act and they say that they carried out this crime in order to exact revenge for the noble Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).

Aftermath of the shootings at the Charlie Hebdo newspaper in Paris, France
Aftermath of the shootings at the Charlie Hebdo newspaper in Paris, France

So now the fingers are being pointed at Islaam and at the Muslims in general and at the Muslims who live in France specifically.  Fires have been set and bombs have been thrown at some of the mosques.

So the question – may Allaah preserve you – is: What is the position of the Salafee towards these acts of terror and what is your advice to the Muslims in France and to the Salafee callers in specific.  May Allaah reward you with goodness.

[A]: Firstly: There is no person of Sunnah whose heart does not have upon it any blemish of innovation (bid’ah), regardless of whether he is a Scholar, or a qualified student of knowledge, or from the students of knowledge who are below that level, or from the laymen who attend the gatherings of the Scholars and their students, except that he opposes these criminal missions, regardless of whether they occur at this newspaper, or at other than it, and no matter how often they occur.

Secondly: The reasonable ones from the Jews and the Christians, from those who neighbor the Muslims in their land, all of them know and realize this; even those who are largely responsible for the countries in Europe and America and other than these.  They feel safe and secure with regards to Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah and they feel safe and secure with regards to the Salafiyyeen.

Thirdly: It has become clear from that which has preceded that it is not permissible to attribute these criminal missions to a person of Sunnah.  Rather, these occur from the Khawaarij and the riffraff and the savages and the anarchists.

And these anarchists in some cases are Raafidah and in some cases they are disbelievers who have donned the cloak of the Muslims and who are hidden within the ranks of the Raafidah or the Khawaarij from the fanatics amongst the Ikhwaanul-Muslimeen and other than them.

So the Ikhwaanul-Muslimeen are one of the modern-day groups of da’wah, all of which are misguided and misguiding others.  They declare it permissible to seek the help of non-Muslims for their political aims.

And it is not far-fetched to say that this criminal mission may have been carried out to cause offense to Ahlus-Sunnah specifically and to the Muslims who live in France and other than it from the countries of Europe and America, and so as to cause strife against Ahlus-Sunnah specifically.

 And in conclusion, I advise our sons, the Salafiyyeen, wherever they may live: in France especially or in other than it from the countries of Europe and America and Africa, the non-Muslim countries; I advise the speakers and the teachers and the lecturers and the journalists who are Muslim to come to an agreement upon a singular word, and that is to openly proclaim innocence from these criminal missions and other than them from the acts of the anarchists.

And Ahlus-Sunnah preserve the agreements and fulfill the trusts.  Ahlus-Sunnah carry out the trusts.  Ahlus-Sunnah safeguard their neighbors and uphold good treatment of the neighbor.  So they do not transgress against his honor, nor against his wealth, nor against his person.

Ahlus-Sunnah remain mindful of Allaah as they live in the lands of Europe and America and other than them from the non-Muslim lands.  They keep in mind that there is between them and the citizens of the country in which they reside a contract and an agreement, so they are never treacherous at all.

And as I have stated previously, the reasonable ones from the Jews and the Christians and other than them have respect for the Salafiyyeen and they feel secure with regards to Ahlus-Sunnah and know that these criminal acts are not their doing.

There remains the issue of the destruction that took place at the mosques by way of bombs.  I do not deem it far-fetched that this situation is likewise.  Rather, I am certain that it was an offense that could have been perpetrated by the political group: al-Ikhwaanul-Muslimeen, or it could have been perpetrated by fanatical and unreasonable disbelievers.

This is what I advise and affirm with regards to these criminal acts and Allaah is the Guardian of success. [End of Shaykh Ubayd al-Jaabiree’s words]

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

The Principle of Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah is Affirmed in Our Times – Part 3

Benefit: How People are Known:

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330),

Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo'ul-Fataawaa (15/330).
Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330).

“And knowledge about the conditions of the people comes through the testimonies of people at times and through al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel at times and through testing and trial at times.”

Important Note:

lummBefore moving into the rest of the article, we recommend that the reader peruse, “Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah,” since it contains several examples of the Salaf speaking about testing people with love for the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah and hatred for the heads of innovation. The series of statements from the Salaf was derived mainly from Jamaal Ibn Furayhaan al-Haarithee’s collection, Lammud-Durril-Manthoor, which has received critical acclaim from Scholars such as Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-’Uthaymeen (d.1421H), Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan and Saalih Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez aalush-Shaykh, along with supplementary material from other works. However, this series will deal specifically with applying this principle of Ahlus-Sunnah in our times.

In the third and final part of this series, we present the essay of the noble Scholar, the Imaam of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel in our times, al-’Allaamah Rabee’ Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee – hafidhahullaah.  So let us move on, in haste, to the words of the Shaykh…

What is the Ruling in Islaam Concerning Testing the People of Desires and Other Than Them?

The Imaam, the Mujaahid, Shaykh Rabee’ Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee – hafidhahullaahu ta’aalaa said,

الحمد لله، والصَّلاة والسَّلام على رسُول الله، وعلى آله وصحبه، ومن اتَّبع هداه

So there is an abundance of speech surrounding the issue of testing the individuals from the people of desires and other than them.  So I saw that it was obligatory to clarify the ruling of Islaam concerning it, relying upon the Qur‘aan and the Sunnah and the positions and statements of the Imaams of Islaam and the Sunnah concerning this affair, so that the Muslim could be upon clear insight and proof about the affair.

As for the Qur‘aan, then Allaah the Exalted said,

O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allaah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful (wives) for them, nor are they lawful (husbands) for them.” [Sooratul-Mumtahinah 60:10]

As for the Sunnah, then the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) tested the slave girl.  He said to her, “Where is Allaah?”  She replied, “Above the heavens.”  He said, “Who am I?”  She replied, “You are the Messenger of Allaah.”  So he said to her master, Mu’aawiyah Ibnul-Hakam as-Sulamee, “Free her, since she is a Believer.” [1]

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“So when a person wants to accompany a Believer, or a Believer wants to accompany someone, but immorality has been mentioned about him and it is said that he has repented from it, regardless of whether what said was true or false, then he must test the person with that which will make his immorality or righteousness apparent.  Likewise, when he wants to grant someone leadership, he must test him, as ’Umar Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez commanded his servant to test Ibn Abee Moosaa.  So the servant said to him, “Indeed, you know my status with the Leader of the Believers.  So how much will you give me if I were to suggest you as a leader to him?”  So he gathered a large amount of wealth for him.  So ’Umar knew that he was not fit for leadership.  Likewise is the case with social dealings.  And likewise is the case with servant boys and owners about whom it is known or about whom it has been said that they indulge in immorality.  So when a man wants to buy him, he must test him, since the effeminate male is like the prostitute and his tawbah (repentance) is like her tawbah.  And knowledge about the conditions of the people comes through the testimonies of people at times and through al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel at times and through testing and trial at times.” [2]

So these tests are warranted for the one who does not dispute with the people of truth and he does not ally himself with the people of falsehood.  So what about the people of falsehood themselves and the one who does dispute with the people of truth and he allies himself with the people of falsehood?

And as for the Salafus-Saalih who acted upon the Book and the Sunnah, then they made the test (imtihaan) the gauge by which they distinguished between Ahlus-Sunnah and the people of innovation and desires and between the trustworthy individuals from the narrators of hadeeth and the liars, the heedless and the weak ones.  So from the Imaams from whom the imtihaan has been quoted are:

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Seereen (d.110H) – rahimahullaah,

“Indeed, this knowledge is Religion.  So look from whom you take your Religion.” [3]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“They did not used to ask about the isnaad (chain of narration).  So when the fitnah (trial, tribulation) occurred, they said, ‘Name to us your men.’  So look to Ahlus-Sunnah and take their hadeeth.  And look to the people of innovation and do not take their hadeeth.” [4]

So even though Ahlul-Hadeeth narrated from the people of innovation with conditions, from them was truthfulness, proficient memorization and trustworthiness, but the affair of al-imtihaan did not cease to be utilized by them.  And they did not distinguish between Ahlus-Sunnah and the people of innovation, except by studying the conditions of the men and testing them through the methods that are well known to the people of knowledge.

And al-’Allaamah ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Yahyaa al-Mu’allimee (d.1386H) – rahimahullaah – said in his book, ’Ilmur-Rijaal wa Ahammiyyatuhu, whilst he was speaking about al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel,

“Then came the time of the atbaa’ut-taabi’een (i.e. the third righteous generation of Muslims).  So the weak narrators, the heedless ones, the liars and the heretics became abundant.  So the Imaams embarked upon clarifying the conditions of the narrators and declaring the falsity of that which was not confirmed.  So no land remained from the lands of the Muslims, except that there was a group of Imaams therein testing the narrators and trialing their conditions and the conditions of their narrations and following up their movements and their moments of inactivity and openly proclaiming to the people the ruling upon them.” [5]

And he – rahimahullaah – said,

“Ways to test the narrators:

And the Imaams had ways to test the narrators.  From them was looking into the condition of the narrator (raawee) with regards to his safeguarding the acts the obedience and remaining away from disobedience and asking the people who knew him.

Al-Hasan Ibn Saalih Ibn Hayy said, ‘When we wanted to write from a man, we would ask about him up until it would we said, ‘Do you want to marry him off?” [6]

And from the ways of testing is that when he narrates ahaadeeth from a Shaykh who is living, to ask that Shaykh about these ahaadeeth.

And an example of this is the statement of Shu’bah (d.160H) who said, “Al-Hasan Ibn ’Amaarah said: al-Hakam informed me from Yahyaa Ibnul-Jazaar of seven ahaadeeth from ’Alee.  So I asked al-Hakam about those.  So he replied, “I have not heard anything from them.” [7]

And from the ways of testing is when he narrates from a Shaykh who has already died.  So it must be said to the narrator: When were you born?  And when did you meet this Shaykh?  And where did you meet him?  Then compare between his answers and what has been documented about the death of the Shaykh from whom he claims to be narrating and the place of his residence and the histories of his travels.

An example of this is what has come from ’Afeer Ibn Ma’daan that ’Umar Ibn Moosaa Ibn Wujayh narrated from Khaalid Ibn Ma’daan.  ’Afeer said, ‘So I said to him, “In which year did you meet him?”  He replied, “In the year 158H, during the military expeditions to Armenia.”  I said, “Fear Allaah O Shaykh!  Do not lie.  Khaalid died in the year 154H. [8] I say to you additionally that he did not travel in a military expedition to Armenia.” [9]

And from the ways is to listen to the narrator of ahaadeeth from mashaayikh who have died.  And then present these ahaadeeth to the trustworthy narrators who narrate from these mashaayikh.  Then look to see if this narrator differs individually with something from their narrations, or opposes them, or adds onto them or omits something from them.  So you will find them saying in the books of al-Jarh (disparagement, criticism), “He differed individually from the trustworthy narrators.” And, “There are manaakeer (rejected narrations) in his hadeeth.”  And, “He errs and mixes up narrations,” and the likes of that. [10]

Imaam Ahmad Ibn ’Abdullaah Ibn Yoonus (d.227H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Test the people of al-Mawsil with Mu’aafaa Ibn ’Imraan.  So if they love him, then they are Ahlus-Sunnah and if they hate him, then they are people of innovation.  Likewise, test the people of al-Koofah with Yahyaa.” [11]

Imaam Nu’aym Ibn Hammaad (d.228H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a person from al-’Iraaq speaking about Ahmad, then doubt his Religion.  And if you see a person from al-Khurasaan speaking about Ishaaq Ibn Raahawayh (d.238H), then doubt his Religion.  And if you see a person from al-Basrah speaking about Wahb Ibn Jareer, then doubt his Religion.” [12]

And Ja’far Ibn Abee ’Uthmaan at-Tiyaalisee said: I heard Yahyaa Ibn Ma’een (d.233H) – rahimahullaah – saying,

“When you see a man speaking about Hammaad Ibn Salamah (d.167H) and ’Ikrimah (d.13H) the freed slave of Ibn ’Abbaas (radiyallaahu ’anhumaa), then doubt his Islaam.” [13]

And Imaam ’Alee Ibnul-Madeenee (d.234H) – rahimahullaah – said in his ’aqeedah,

“And if you see a man loving Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) and supplicating for him and asking Allaah to have mercy upon him, then have hope for him to attain goodness and know that he is absolved from innovations.  And if you see a man loving ’Umar Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez (d.101H) and mentioning his good qualities and spreading them, then know that this will lead to goodness if Allaah so wills.  And when you see a man from the people of al-Basrah relying upon Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee (d.131H) and Ibn ’Awn (d.151H) and Yoonus and at-Taymee and loving them and mentioning their good qualities often and taking them as examples, then have hope that he will attain goodness.  Then after those ones came Hammaad Ibn Salamah and Mu’aadh Ibn Mu’aadh and Wahb Ibn Jareer.  So these ones are a trial for the people of innovation.  And when you see a man from the people of al-Koofah relying upon Talhah Ibn Musrif and Ibn Abjar and Ibn Hayyaan at-Taymee and Maalik Ibn Maghool and Sufyaan Ibn Sa’eed ath-Thawree (d.167H) and Zaa‘idah, then have hope for him.  And after them came ’Abdullaah Ibn Idrees and Muhammad Ibn ’Ubayd and Ibn Abee ’Utbah and al-Muhaaribee, so have hope for the one who praises them.” [14]

And Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man defaming Hammaad Ibn Salamah, then doubt his Islaam.” [15]

And Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d.256H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“’Ubaydullaah Ibn Sa’eed said: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee (d.198H) saying after mentioning a hadeeth, “And when you see a man from al-Koofah mentioning Maalik Ibn Maghool, then trust him.” [16]

And Imaam Aboo Haatim ar-Raazee (d.277H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a Raazee and other than him hating Abaa Zur’ah (d.264H), then know that he is an innovator.” [17]

And Imaam Ahmad Ibn Asram Ibn Khuzaymah al-Maghfalee (d.285H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man from al-Anbaar loving Abaa Ja’far al-Hidhaa‘ and Muthannaa Ibn Jaami’ al-Anbaaree, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [18]

And Imaam ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee (d.198H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man from the Hijaaz, loving Maalik Ibn Anas (d.179H), then he is a person of Sunnah,” and he said in the narration of Muhammad Ibn Muslim, “When you see a man from al-Madeenah loving Maalik…” [19]

And Aswad Ibn Saalim – rahimahullaah – said,

“Ibnul-Mubaarak was an Imaam to be followed.  He was from the most steadfast of the people upon the Sunnah.  When you see a man slandering Ibnul-Mubaarak (d.181H) with something, then doubt his Islaam.” [20]

And Aboo Muhammad Ibn Abee Haatim ar-Raazee (d.327H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Chapter: The one who loves Hammaad Ibn Zayd (d.179H) is worthy of the Sunnah.  Ubayy and Muhammad Ibn Muslim Ibn Muslim narrated to us saying: We heard Hammaad Ibn Zaadaan saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from al-Basrah loving Hammaad Ibn Zayd, then he is a person of Sunnah.” [21]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“Chapter: A person who passes the trial of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal is worthy of the Sunnah.  Ahmad Ibn Qaasim Ibn ’Atiyyah related to us saying: I heard ’Abdullaah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Shabawayh al-Marwazee saying: I heard Abaa Rajaa‘ – meaning Qutaybah Ibn Sa’eed (d.240H) – saying: When you see a man loving Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, then know that he is a person of Sunnah and Jamaa’ah…”

And he said: I heard Abaa Ja’far Muhammad Ibn Haaroon al-Makhramee, commonly known as al-Falaas, saying,

“When you see a man finding fault with Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H), then know that he is a misguided innovator.” [22]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“Chapter what is hoped from goodness for the one who loves al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H).  Saalih Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.266H) related to us: Ibnul-Madeenee related to us saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan – meaning Ibn Mahdee – saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam loving al-Awzaa’ee and Abaa Ishaaq al-Fazaaree, then have hope that he will attain goodness.”

And he said,

“My father related to us: Aboo Ziyaad Hammaad Ibn Zaadaan related to us saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam loving al-Awzaa’ee and Abaa Ishaaq al-Fazaaree, then he is a person of Sunnah.” [23]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“Chapter: The one who loves Abee Ishaaq al-Fazaaree is worthy of the Sunnah.  My father related to me saying: I heard Hammaad Ibn Zaadaan saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam loving al-Awzaa’ee and Abaa Ishaaq al-Fazaaree, then he is a person of Sunnah.”

Ahmad Ibn Salamah an-Naysaabooree related to us: Aboo Qudaamah ’Ubaydullaah Ibn Sa’eed related to us saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam mentioning al-Awzaa’ee and al-Fazaaree – meaning, with goodness – then trust him.” [24]

And Aboo Ahmad al-Haakim (d.378H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“And when you see a man loving Sufyaan ath-Thawree and Maalik Ibn Anas and Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee and ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Awn and Yoonus Ibn ’Ubayd (d.139H) and Sulaymaan at-Taymee and Shareek (d.177H) and Abul-Ahwas and al-Fudayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) and Sufyaan Ibn ’Uyaynah (d.197H) and al-Layth Ibn Sa’d (d.175H) and Ibnul-Mubaarak and Wakee’ Ibnul-Jarraah (d.197H) and Yahyaa Ibn Sa’eed (d.198H) and ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee and Yahyaa Ibn Yahyaa and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Ishaaq Ibn Raahawayh, then know that he is upon the path.  And when you see a man saying these individuals are doubtful, then be wary of him, since is not upon the path.” [25]

And Aboo ’Abdullaah Ibn Battah (d.387H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man from al-’Ukbar loving Abaa Hafs Ibn Rajaa‘, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [26]

And he also said,

“When you see a man from al-Baghdaad loving Abul-Hasan Ibn Bashaar and Abaa Muhammad al-Barbahaaree (d.329H), then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [27]

And Muhammad Ibn ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee – rahimahullaah – said,

“Al-Awzaa’ee and al-Fazaaree were two Imaams of the Sunnah.  When you see a man from ash-Shaam mentioning al-Awzaa’ee and al-Fazaaree, then trust him.  They were Imaams of the Sunnah.” [28]

And Abul-Husayn Muhammad Ibn Ibraaheem Ibn Shu’ayb al-Ghaazee at-Tabaree – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a Raazee and a Khuraasaanee loving Abaa Haatim and Abaa Zur’ah, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [29] [30]

So this is a widely accepted manhaj and a well-known truth.  And it is widespread amongst Ahlus-Sunnah and it is an unsheathed sword against the people of innovation.  And from the signs of the people of innovation is that they reject it and they find fault with Ahlus-Sunnah and revile them for it.  So when you hear a man finding fault with Ahlus-Sunnah, then know that he is from the people of desires and innovation, except if he is ignorant.  So in that case, teach him and clarify to him that this imtihaan (test) for the people of desires is an affair that is legislated by the Sharee’ah and it is proven by the Book and the Sunnah and the deeds of the Salaf.  No one is troubled by it and condemns it, except the people of innovation, because it disgraces them and it lays bare whatever they conceal from innovations.

وصلَّى اللهُ على نَبيِّنا محمَّدٍ، وعلى آله وصحبه وسلّم

Written by,
Rabee’ Ibn Haadee ’Umayr al-Madkhalee
8/25/1433H

Endnotes:

[1]: Related by Muslim (no. 537) and Ahmad in al-Musnad (5/447).

[2]: Refer to Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/329-330) of Ibn Taymiyyah.

[3]: Refer to Muqaddimah Saheeh Muslim (p. 14).

[4]: Refer to Muqaddimah Saheeh Muslim (p. 15).

[5]: Refer to ’Ilmur-Rijaal wa Ahammiyyatuhu (p. 20) of al-Mu’allimee.

[6]: Refer to al-Kifaayah (p. 155) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee.

[7]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (8/326) of al-Khateeb, with the checking of Dr. Bashaar ’Awaad Ma’roof.

[8]: The correct view is that Khaalid died in the year 104H, as has been related by al-’Uqaylee in ad-Du’afaa‘ (3/191).  And refer to al-Meezaan (3/225) of adh-Dhahabee.

[9]: Refer to ad-Du’afaa‘ (3/191) of al-’Uqaylee and al-Meezaan (3/225) of adh-Dhahabee.

[10]: Refer to ’Ilmur-Rijaal wa Ahammiyyatuhu (p. 22-24) of al-Mu’allimee.

[11]: Refer to Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah (1/74) of al-Laalikaa‘ee.

[12]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (6/348-349) of al-Khateeb and Siyar A’laamun-Nubalaa‘ (11/381) of adh-Dhahabee and Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb (1/191) of Ibn Hajr.

[13]: Refer to Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah (3/568) of al-Laalikaa‘ee.

[14]: Refer to Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah (1/191-192) of al-Laalikaa‘ee.

[15]: Refer to Tadhkiratul-Huffaadh (1/203) of adh-Dhahabee.

[16]: Refer to at-Taareekhul-Kabeer (7/314) of al-Bukhaaree.

[17]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (10/329) of al-Khateeb.

[18]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (13/174) of al-Khateeb.

[19]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/25) of Ibn Abee Haatim ar-Raazee.

[20]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (10/168) of al-Khateeb.

[21]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/183) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[22]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/308-309) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[23]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/217) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[24]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/284-285) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[25]: Refer to Shi’aar Ashaabil-Hadeeth (p. 32-33) of al-Haakim.

[26]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (11/239) of al-Khateeb.

[27]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (12/67) of al-Khateeb.

[28]: Refer to Hilyatul-Awliyaa‘ (8/254) of Aboo Nu’aym al-Asbahaanee.

[29]: Refer to Tahdheebul-Kamaal (24/389) of al-Mizzee.

[30]: Refer to Ta‘ammulaat fee Kitaab Rifqan Ahlas-Sunnah bi Ahlis-Sunnah (p. 109-114) of al-’Awfee.

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

The Principle of Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah is Affirmed in Our Times – Part 2

Benefit: How People are Known:

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330),

Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo'ul-Fataawaa (15/330).
Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330).

“And knowledge about the conditions of the people comes through the testimonies of people at times and through al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel at times and through testing and trial at times.”

Important Note:

lummBefore moving into the rest of the article, we recommend that the reader peruse, “Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah,” since it contains several examples of the Salaf speaking about testing people with love for the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah and hatred for the heads of innovation. The series of statements from the Salaf was derived mainly from Jamaal Ibn Furayhaan al-Haarithee’s collection, Lammud-Durril-Manthoor, which has received critical acclaim from Scholars such as Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-’Uthaymeen (d.1421H), Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan and Saalih Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez aalush-Shaykh, along with supplementary material from other works. However, this series will deal specifically with applying this principle of Ahlus-Sunnah in our times.

In the second part of this series, Shaykh ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Yahyaa al-Bura’ee sheds light and elaborates upon how to apply the principle of testing people through prominent Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah.  Specifically, he discusses the differences in testing people through the likes of Shaykh Ibn Baaz (d.1420H), Shaykh al-Albaanee, Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, Shaykh Rabee’ Ibn Haadee and Shaykh Muqbil Ibn Haadee (d.1421H) – and the different circumstances surrounding each of these Scholars.  Additionally, he uncovers the schemes of the hizbiyyeen with regards to this test by expounding upon an insightful statement from Shaykh ’Ubayd Ibn ’Abdullaah al-Jaabiree.  So let us proceed to the explanation of the Shaykh…

Shaykh ’Abdul-’Azeez al-Bura’ee Expounds upon Applying the Principle of Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah in Present Times – Along with an Uncovering the Schemes of the Hizbiyyeen Towards the Salafee Scholars:

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The noble Shaykh, ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Yahyaa al-Bura’ee – hafidhahullaah – was asked about testing people by individuals, is it from the manhaj of the Salaf, or not?

So he answered,

“There is confusion that has occurred with regards to this affair amongst some of the students of knowledge.  And the reason for that is the manner of dealing with this affair.  So some of them evoke within their minds an erroneous manner of dealing with this affair.  So they say, ‘This is not correct,’ and he has a specific image in his mind.  As for viewing this affair from its foundation, then testing people by individuals is an affair that was known amongst the Salaf.

 أضحى ابن حنبل فتنة مأمونة…..وبحب أحمد يعرف المتنسك
وإذا رأيت لأحمد متنقصًــا…..فاعلم بأن ستوره ستهتـك

Ibn Hanbal sacrificed and proved trustworthy during the fitnah (trial, tribulation),
And it is with the love of Ahmad that the devout individual becomes known.
And when you see someone belittling Ahmad,
Then know that his disgraceful secret shall be exposed.

Yes.  So the people used to test others with the love of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H).  So if someone loved Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, then he was a Sunnee.  Likewise, there were others besides Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, I believe al-Mu’aafaa Ibn ’Imraan, [1] people tested others with him in some of the lands.

In any case, there is no problem in permitting this affair.  However, who is the person that is being tested?  And who is the person with him he is being tested?  Yes, who is the person with him he is being tested?

This – may Allaah bless you – is considered enough of an answer to the question: testing the people by individuals is considered from the manhaj of the Salaf.  However, a problem remains: Who is the individual by whom others can be tested?

Then I say: in this era, who is the individual by whom others can be tested?  It is incumbent upon the students of knowledge and the mashaayikh to take note of this affair.  So sometimes they look at a person of small status and they say that this is the one with whom the people must be tested.  No, it is not necessary.  It is not necessary that he have vast knowledge and he does not need noble status and does not need to be the most knowledgeable person upon the face of the earth.  It is not necessary.  Yes, because you want to issue a ruling upon a person by the love of so and so and by the absence of love for so and so.

So for example, it is not right to test the people by Shaykh Ibn Baaz (d.1420H) – ’alayhi rahmatillaah.  This is not due to any deficiency in him.  So that which I hold, that will get me closer to Allaah, is that there was no one nobler than Shaykh Ibn Baaz during his lifetime – rahmatillaahi ’alayhi.

Due to that, may Allaah bless you, I was in awe of a statement that was said by Shaykh ’Ubayd al-Jaabiree.  He said concerning Shaykh Ibn Baaz, “Shaykh Ibn Baaz is revered by Ahlus-Sunnah and feared by the people of innovation.”  This is a very important affair, because if you were to test a person by such an individual, such that if he loves him you love him and he if he hates him you hate him, then the people of innovation falsely manifest love for Ibn Baaz.  Rather, the Soofiyyah and some of the Shee’ah prayed the funeral Prayer over him in absentia and they did not dare to revile him.

And the hizbiyyoon in the Kingdom (of Saudi Arabia) defend Ibn Baaz publicly and their speech outwardly demonstrates love for him.  So if I were to love everyone who openly manifested love for Ibn Baaz, I would have to love the innovators.  Does anyone from amongst the Surooriyyeen in Yemen and other than Yemen dare to revile Ibn Baaz?  No!  Rather, they praise him.

So due to this, if you were to make Ibn Baaz a trial for the people, it would mean that you would love those who were deserving of blame.  And this affair is clear.  However, the likes of Shaykh Rabee’ is correct to be used as a trial for the people, because no one dislikes him except an innovator.  No one dislikes him, except an innovator.  This is clear and the history of that is apparent.

Amazing book of Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan
Amazing book of Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

With regards to Shaykh al-Fawzaan there is some further elaboration needed.  If you were to ask about him in general, some of the innovators would defend him and they would mention him with goodness and they would praise him.  However, if you were to elaborate upon his affair by saying, ‘O so and so!  What is your view about the book, al-Ajwibatul-Mufeedah, by Shaykh al-Fawzaan?’  No one loves this book, except a Sunnee, and no one accepts this book, except a Sunnee.

How many times did Abul-Hasan (al-Ma‘ribee) sway from right to left and quote a fatwaa from here and a fatwaa from there and a fatwaa from there?  And he was never able to even mention this book upon his tongue at all.  And take another look! O brothers, the affair of this book is amazing.  Do you recall that he quoted from the book, al-I’tisaam of ash-Shaatibee (d.790H)?  Did you hear him quote from it?  Did you hear him quote from as-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ’Aasim (d.287H) or ’Abdullaah Ibn Hanbal (d.290H), or from Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah of al-Laalikaa‘ee (d.418H)?  Along with this, his students would immerse themselves in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa of Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) due to the fact that Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah speaks with abundant speech, which is good for clipping and clipping from it and one can present the speech outside of its true context, up until Ibn Taymiyyah is presented to you as a completely different person.

The point is that the book of Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan is good to test people with.  However, with regards to Shaykh al-Fawzaan in general, do not think that an innovator will praise him and then you will love an innovator at that point because he outwardly manifests love for al-Fawzaan.

Shaykh Muqbil (d.1421H) – ’alayhi rahmatillaah – is good for testing the people with, because we have not seen an innovator, except that he dislikes him, except that he dislikes him.  And if you find a man, who is a proponent of innovation, mentioning Shaykh Muqbil with goodness, then this man does not know Shaykh Muqbil.  He does not know Shaykh Muqbil.  Yes.

And likewise, there is Shaykh al-Albaanee (d.1420H) – ’alayhi rahmatillaah – the innovators had no love for him.  Yes.  These individuals – may Allaah bless you – are the mashaayikh, the Scholars, the noble Scholars.  However, the innovators despise them because they expose the innovators.  And Allaah aided Shaykh Ibn Baaz – ’alayhi rahmatillaah – by granting him victory up until the people of the east and the west revered him.  And Allaah placed this reverence in the eastern and western regions of the earth.  This was from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.  This was arranged by the Lord of the worlds.  This is a very important elaboration.  I hope that Allaah will benefit the listeners through it.

Fine, if Allaah so wills.  In any case, the affair is as you have heard.  The affair is as you have heard.  And the issue is apparent with regards to the companions of Abul-Hasan (al-Ma‘ribee).  Indeed, the boundaries have been defined and the paths have been pointed out, so there is no ambiguity remaining.  May Allaah bless you.  End of the Shaykh’s words.

Endnotes:

[1]: Here the author is referring to the statement of the Imaam, the Haafidh, Hibatullaah al-Laalikaa‘ee (d.418H) – rahimahullaah – who said: Ahmad Ibn ’Ubayd informed us, Muhammad Ibnul-Husayn informed us that Ahmad Ibn Zuhayr said: I heard Ahmad Ibn ’Abdullaah Ibn Yoonus saying, ‘Test the people of Mawsil with Mu’aafaa Ibn ’Imraan.  So if they love him, then they are Ahlus-Sunnah, and if they hate him, then they are people of innovation.  Likewise, the people of al-Koofah are to be tested with Yahyaa.”  Refer to Sharh Usoolul-I’tiqaad (no. 58) of al-Laalikaa‘ee.

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

The Principle of Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah is Affirmed in Our Times – Part 1

How People are Known:

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330),

Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo'ul-Fataawaa (15/330).
Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330).

“And knowledge about the conditions of the people comes through the testimonies of people at times and through al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel at times and through testing and trial at times.”

Important Note:

lummBefore moving into the rest of the article, we recommend that the reader peruse, “Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah,” since it contains several examples of the Salaf speaking about testing people with love for the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah and hatred for the heads of innovation. The series of statements from the Salaf was derived mainly from Jamaal Ibn Furayhaan al-Haarithee’s collection, Lammud-Durril-Manthoor, which has received critical acclaim from Scholars such as Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-’Uthaymeen (d.1421H), Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan and Saalih Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez aalush-Shaykh, along with supplementary material from other works.  However, this series will deal specifically with applying this principle of Ahlus-Sunnah in our times.

 Shaykh Zayd Ibn Muhammad al-Madkhalee is Asked About Applying this Principle in Present Times:

The noble Shaykh, al-’Allaamah Zayd Ibn Muhammad al-Madkhalee – hafidhahullaah – was asked,

“What is the ruling on testing the people with individuals, regardless of whether they are Scholars of the Sunnah, or the heads of innovation?  And is that ruling to be applied upon the modern day individuals?  Benefit us, may Allaah reward you with goodness.”

The noble Scholar answered,

There is no doubt, my brother, that the Salafus-Saalih used to test the people with the Scholars who were known to be staunch upon the Sunnah and who were known for sound ’aqeedah (creed) and manhaj (methodology), and who were known for harshness against the people of desires and innovation.  And I have become acquainted with some texts from the Salaf, each text contains an example of the people being tested by Ahlus-Sunnah.  So whoever knew their excellence and loved them and mentioned them with goodness, then he was a person of Sunnah.  And whosoever belittled them and dishonoured them, then he was a person of evil and innovation.  And before you is an example from the many texts of the Salaf concerning this affair:

al-Ajwibatul-Athariyyah of Shaykh Zayd al-Madkhalee
al-Ajwibatul-Athariyyah of Shaykh Zayd al-Madkhalee

Imaam al-Hasan Ibn ’Alee al-Barbahaaree (d.329H) – rahimahullaah – said, “And when you see a man loving Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) and Anas Ibn Maalik and Usayd Ibn Hudayr, then know that he is a person of Sunnah if Allaah so wills.

And when you see a man loving Ayyoob (d.131H) and Ibn ’Awn (d.151H) and Yoonus Ibn ’Ubayd (d.139H) and ’Abdullaah Ibn Idrees al-Awdee and ash-Sha’bee (d.103H) and Maalik Ibn Maghool and Yazeed Ibn Zuray’ and Mu’aadh Ibn Mu’aadh and Wahb Ibn Jareer and Hammaad Ibn Salamah (d.167H) and Hammaad Ibn Zayd (d.179H) and Maalik Ibn Anas (d.179H) and al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H) and Zaa‘idah Ibn Qudaamah, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.

And when you see a man who loves Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) and al-Hajjaaj Ibn Minhaal and Ahmad Ibn Nasr and he mentions them with goodness and he speaks with their speech, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [1]

And you said in your question, “And is this ruling to be applied upon the modern-day individuals in these times of ours?”

And the answer is yes.  The people are to be tested in every time and place with Ahlus-Sunnah in ’aqeedah and Sharee’ah, those who have devoted themselves to the preservation of the Sunnah and understanding its meanings and texts and acting in accordance to it and defending it.

And testing the people with Ahlus-Sunnah is not confined to a specific individual or individuals.  Rather, the people may be tested with every person of Sunnah in every time and place in the manner that I have described.  Likewise, the people are to be tested with the people of innovation who call to it.

So from ’Uqbah Ibn ’Alqamah who said, ‘I was with Ata‘ah Ibnul-Mundhir.  So some of the people in the gathering said, ‘What do you say about the man who sits with Ahlus-Sunnah and mingles with them, but when the people of innovation are mentioned, he replies, ‘Let us leave alone their mention, do not mention them.”  Arta‘ah replied, “He is with them, do not be deceived by his affair.”  He said: So I objected to the statement of Arta‘ah.  He said: So I went to al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H), since he was skilled in these issues.  So when I reached him, he said, ‘Arta‘ah has spoken truthfully.  And the correct statement is what he said.  This individual prohibits their mention, so when will they be warned against when we do not praise their mention?!” [2]

And al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Whosoever is able to hide his innovation from us, his friends do not remain hidden from us.” [3]

And al-’Ukbaree (d.387H) – and he is Ibn Battah – said, “And when Sufyaan ath-Thawree arrived at al-Basrah, he began looking into the affair of ar-Rabee’ – meaning, Ibn Subayh – and his status amongst the people.  He asked, “What is his madhhab?”  They replied, “He has no madhhab but the Sunnah.”  Sufyaan said, “Who are his close companions?”  They said, “The people of al-Qadr.”  He said, “Then he is Qadaree.” [4] End of Shaykh Zayd’s words. [5]

Testing Individuals with the Modern Day Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah:

Shaykh Jamaal Ibn Furayhaan al-Haarithee said,

“And we say today without any hesitation: When you see a man loving and praising Ibn Baaz (d.1420H) and al-Albaanee (d.1420H) and al-’Uthaymeen (d.1421H) and al-Fawzaan and al-Luhaydaan and Amaan al-Jaamee (d.1417H) and Rabee’ al-Madkhalee and al-Waadi’ee (d.1421H) and an-Najmee (d.1429H) and Zayd al-Madkhalee and al-Burjiss (d.1425H) and ’Abdul-’Azeez aalush-Shaykh and Saalih aalush-Shaykh and their likes, then know that he is a person of the Sunnah, if Allaah so wills.  And when you see someone who differentiates between this and that, from those whom we have mentioned, then know that he is not upon the path.  And Allaah knows best.” [6]

Imaam Aboo ’Uthmaan Ismaa’eel Ibn ’Abdur-Rahmaan as-Saaboonee (d.449H) – rahimahullaah – said,

Statement of Aboo 'Uthmaan as-Saaboonee - 'Aqeedatus-Salaf Ashaabul-Hadeeth (p. 113).
Statement of Aboo ‘Uthmaan as-Saaboonee – ‘Aqeedatus-Salaf Ashaabul-Hadeeth (p. 113).

 

“And I add onto these individuals whom Qutaybah (d.240H) – rahimahullaah – has mentioned, those whom the one who loves them is a person of Sunnah.  They are from the Imaams of Ahlul-Hadeeth who are taken as an example, and the people are guided by their guidance and the people count themselves as being from their group and followers and party and other groups are found following their narrations, from them are: Muhammad Ibn Idrees al-Matlabee (d.204H): the Imaam, the magnificent leader, he was a great blessing upon the people of Islaam and the Sunnah, prosperous, inspirational, inspired and upright.  He was an individual who acted in accordance to the Religion of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) by aiding them and defending them, to an extent that was not done by the Scholars of his time, nor those who came after him.

And from those who came before ash-Shaafi’ee – rahimahullaah – were: Sa’eed Ibn Jubayr (d.95H) and az-Zuhree (d.124H) and ash-Sha’bee (d.103H) and at-Taymee (d.143H).  And those who came after them are: al-Layth Ibn Sa’d al-Misree (d.175H) and al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H) and ath-Thawree (d.161H) and Sufyaan Ibn ’Uyaynah al-Hilaalee (d.198H) and Hammaad Ibn Salamah (d.167H) and Hammaad Ibn Zayd (d.179H) and Yoonus Ibn ’Ubayd (d.139H) and Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee (d.131H) and Ibn ’Awn (d.150H) and those like them.

And after them are the likes of: Yazeed Ibn Haaroon al-Waasitee (d.206H) and ’Abdur-Razzaaq Ibn Hammaam as-San’aanee (d.211H) and Jareer Ibn ’Abdul-Hameed al-Dubee (d.188H).

And after them are the likes of: Muhammad Ibn Yahyaa adh-Dhuhalee (d.258H) and Muhammad Ibn Ismaa’eel al-Bukhaaree (d.256H) and Muslim Ibnul-Hajjaaj al-Qushayree (d.261H) and Abee Daawood as-Sijjistaanee (d.275H) and Abee Zur’ah ar-Raazee (d.264H) and Abee Haatim ar-Raazee (d.277H) and his son (d.328H) and Muhammad Ibn Muslim Ibn Waarah ar-Raazee (d.270H) and Muhammad Ibn Aslam at-Toosee (d.242H) and Abee Sa’eed ’Uthmaan Ibn Sa’eed ad-Daarimee as-Sijzee (d.280H) and Imaam Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq Ibn Khuzaymah an-Naysaabooree (d.311H) – the one who used to be called the Imaam of the Imaams and upon my life he was the Imaam of the Imaams in his time and age – and Abee Ya’qoob Ishaaq Ibn Ismaa’eel al-Bastee (d.303H) and al-Hasan Ibn Sufyaan al-Fasawee (d.303H) and my paternal grandfather: Abee Sa’eed Yahyaa Ibn Mansoor az-Zaahid al-Harawee (d.292H) and Abee Haatim ’Adiyy Ibn Hamdawayh as-Saaboonee and his sons the two swords of the Sunnah: Abee ’Abdullaah as-Saaboonee and Abee ’Abdur-Rahmaan as-Saaboonee and other than them from the Imaams who held fast to the Sunnah, aided it, called to it and practiced it.” [7]

In his lessons on the book ’Aqeedatus-Salaf Ashaabil-Hadeeth, al-’Allaamah Muhammad Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee – hafidhahullaah – commented on this statement of as-Saaboonee,

“So these individuals whom the author has mentioned are from the main Imaams of hadeethrahimahumullaah.  And I add onto them: If you see a man in these times having hatred for Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) and his student Ibnul-Qayyim (d.751H) and having hatred for Ibn Ibn Katheer (d.774H) and having hatred for adh-Dhahabee (d.748H) and having hatred from Muhammad Ibn ’Abdul-Wahhaab (d.1206H) and having hatred for the Imaams of the da’wah and calling them derogatory names and reviling them…  And in these times of ours, you find someone having hatred for the likes of our Shaykh, the Shaykhul-Islaam of this era, Shaykh ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz (d.1420H) – rahimahullaah – and also the Imaam of hadeeth in this era Shaykh Naasirud-Deen al-Albaanee (d.1420H) and Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-’Uthaymeen (d.1421H).  If you see a man having hatred for those ones… Likewise, our Shaykh, Shaykh Rabee’ and our Shaykh, Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Yahyaa an-Najmee (d.1429H) and our Shaykh, Shaykh Zayd and likewise Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan and other than them such as Shaykh Saalih al-Luhaydaan and the Muftee (i.e. Shaykh ’Abdul-’Azeez aalush-Shaykh) and other than them from amongst those who are like them…  If you see a man reviling them, then know that he is upon evil.  Why?  Because he does not hate them due to their personalities and them as individuals.  Rather, he only hates them due to what they are upon from the Sunnah and hadeeth.  And everyone makes mistakes.  However, having hatred for these individuals only occurs due to what they carry from the Religion and the Sunnah, because these individuals are the carriers of the Sunnah in the later times.  And in these days, they are the ones who aid it and they defend it and they refute the people of desires and innovation.  So you will find that the one who reviles them does not do so because of them as individuals.  He only hates them due to their ’aqeedah and their da’wah, which they are upon.  So when you see someone reviling the likes of these individuals, then be suspicious of him because the one with a righteous heart and love for the Sunnah and its people does not revile them.  Only the one who has a disease in his heart reviles them.  We ask Allaah for protection and safety.”  End of the Shaykh’s words.

Endnotes:
[1]: Refer to Sharhus-Sunnah (p. 163) of al-Barbahaaree, with the checking of ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Ahmad al-Jumayzee.
[2]: Refer to Taareekh Dimashq (8/15) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee.
[3]: Refer to al-Ibaanah (2/479) of Ibn Battah.
[4]: Refer to al-Ibaanah (2/453) of Ibn Battah.
[5]: Refer to al-Ajwibatul-Athariyyah ’anil-Masaa‘ilil-Manhajiyyah (p. 24-27) of Zayd al-Madkhalee.
[6]: Refer to: سئل الشيخ الفقيه عبيد الجابري عن حال جمعية احياء التراث في الرياض

[7]: Refer to ’Aqeedatus-Salaf Ashaabil-Hadeeth (p. 113), with the checking of Abul-Yameen al-Mansooree.

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ’Umar Baazmool Answers Doubts about al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel

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jarhRecently, Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool gave a lecture via tele-link to the Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah Institute in Benghazi, Libya after the Maghrib Prayer on the 4th of Sha’baan, 1434H, entitled: Juhoodus-Salaf fee Siyaanatis-Sunnah wat-Tahdheer minal-Bida’ wa Ahlihi (Exertion of the Salaf in Safeguarding the Sunnah and Warning against Innovation and its People). In this lecture, he addressed the following doubts concerning al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel:

  1. The science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel was confined to the time of the hadeeth narrators and does not exist in our times.
  2. The science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is confined to criticism of hadeeth narrators and criticizing the people of innovation is not included within it.

Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ’Umar Baazmool – hafidhahullaah – said,

“And the speech concerning al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is not limited to the narrators of hadeeth.  Rather, Ahlus-Sunnah speak in terms of jarh (criticism) and ta’deel (praise) with regards to everyone who embarks upon conveying knowledge and Religion.  Due to that, Ibn Seereen (d.110H) and other than him from amongst the Salaf mentioned, “Indeed, this knowledge is Religion.  So look to whom you take your Religion.”

And there occurs that some of the Salaf said, “When they wanted to take the hadeeth from an individual, they would ask about him so much so that the people would think they wanted to marry that individual off.”

And this should clarify to you that the door of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is open up until the Hour, or up until knowledge has ended, because the topic knowledge is necessarily in need of confirmation (tathabbut).  Confirmation (at-tathabbut) is inescapable.  So the one who is unknown, or majhoolul-’adaalah (i.e. his integrity is unknown), then his hadeeth is not accepted, as is proven by the understanding of the statement of Allaah the Glorified and Exalted.  So the benefit learned from this aayah is that the news conveyed by the faasiq (disobedient sinner) is not accepted.  And the understanding of this aayah is that news conveyed by the one whose integrity is unknown is also not accepted, because this aayah means that we are obligated by justice to accept news from the one who is upright and whose integrity is known.  And as for the one whose integrity is not known, then his news is not accepted.  Due to that, it is inevitable that we must not accept news, except from one is known for integrity (’adaalah) and the Scholars have testified that for him.

And news (khabr) here refers to information unrestrictedly, regardless of whether it is concerning the narrators of hadeeth, or if it is information about issues of knowledge and Religion, or any type of general information.  So we do not accept news, except from an upright person whose integrity is well known.  And upon this foundation, the science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is not confined to the topic hadeeth narrators.  Rather, it is in every topic of information.

And I intend by the topic of narrators: the topic of hadeeth and the narrators of hadeeth and those who document the hadeeth.

Therefore, we have speech concerning the narrators in terms of jarh and ta’deel and speech about all those who embark upon conveying knowledge, up until their integrity is known so their news is accepted, or their integrity is unknown, so one refrains and does not accept their news.”

Shaykh Muhammad has an article clarifying the same issues, therein he says,

“So the science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel and the speech concerning it is not closed up until the Hour is established, as long as there is Islaam.  Why?!  I say: The affair of testimonies in court and feuds and disputes are established upon the foundation of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  So as long as mankind exists, then there will be disagreement there will be feuding and dispute.  And as long as there is a dispute, then there will be courts and judges.  And as long as there are judges, then it is inevitable that there will be judges.  And it is inevitable that there will be those who will vouch for them.  So due to this, al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel cannot be confined to a time, nor a place.  We only say that as long as Islaam exists, then al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel will exist.  And the least significant of topics that I am mentioning to you is the topic of testimonies, it is well known from the topics of fiqh (jurisprudence) and whatever results from that such as the topics of judgement, the courts and the disputes.  There is also whatever is connected to the application of Allaah’s judgements, for example: killing the game in the state of ihraam.  Two trustworthy witnesses from amongst you must testify to this.  It means that al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is inescapable, in order to distinguish the one who possesses integrity from the others.  So if they are disparaged (jarh), then their speech is not accepted.  And such is the case with the other topics in the Sharee’ah which necessitate al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  Based upon this, we say: speaking about the men in terms of jarh (criticism) and ta’deel (praise) is from the sciences connected to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.

Take for example the topic of seeking knowledge and the etiquette of seeking knowledge.  As long as Islaam exists and Islaamic knowledge is sought, then al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel will exist.  One of the Salaf said, “When they wanted to take the hadeeth from an individual, they would ask about him so much so that the people would think they wanted to marry that individual off.” And another said, “Indeed, this knowledge is Religion.  So look to whom you take your Religion.” What is the meaning of this speech?  The meaning of this speech is that you will be in need of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel as long as you are in search of Islaamic knowledge. [1] So who says that al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is specific only to the chain of narrators in the asaaneed, meaning the biographical books about the narrators only, who says this?!  Islaam’s adaptation varies with regards to this.  You are in need of knowing al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel in very many affairs from the issues that have been mentioned by the Scholars in the topic of the Prayer and the issue of praying behind a proponent of innovation. Speaking out against the person of innovation is al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  Speaking about the conditions of the people with regards to innovation and the Sunnah is speech about al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  In the topic of medicine and medical treatment, the Scholars have stipulated that the speech of a trustworthy Muslim physician is accepted.  This means, that there could be a Muslim physician who is not trustworthy.  And to say that he is not trustworthy is al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  And when we arrive at the affairs of da’wah, a caller comes and says that he is a caller to Islaam and he wants to invite us, for example.  This is an affair of seeking knowledge and we must know that this caller has been praised by the people of knowledge, or he has not been praised by the people of knowledge!  Therefore, it cannot be said, “O my brother, al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel has ended and its time has passed and it is connected to the narrators and there is not jarh or ta’deel amongst us now.”

Shaykh al-Albaanee (d.1420H) is a sign from amongst the signs in this age in hadeeth.  He described Shaykh Rabee’ as the flag bearer of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel in these times!!  So if this description was inapplicable, then the first of the people to reject it and not use it in reference to a man living in these times would have been Shaykh al-Albaanee, because he was from the people who specialized in it.  And Allaah knows best.” [2]

Endnotes:

[1]: BENEFIT: The understanding described by Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool for al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel existed well before the fourteenth century, much to the dismay of its deniers today. One such example is Imaam Muhammad Ibn Ismaa’eel as-San’aanee (d.1189H).  In his commentary on Bulooghul-Maraam, entitled Subulus-Salaam, in the 4th volume of the Maktabatul-Ma’aarif print, with the comments of al-Albaanee (d.1420H), as-San’aanee says on (p. 554) whilst speaking about the exceptions to gheebah (backbiting),

Statement of Muhammad Ibn Ismaa'eel as-San'aanee (d.1189H)
Statement of Muhammad Ibn Ismaa’eel as-San’aanee (d.1189H)

Fourthly: Warning the Muslims against deception, such as jarh (criticism) of the narrator and the witnesses and whosoever puts himself forward to teach and to issue religious verdicts without being qualified.  And the proof is the statement of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), “What an evil brother he is to his family.” [Related by al-Bukhaaree (no. 6032).] And the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “As for Mu’aawiyah, then he is very poor.” And that occurred when Faatimah Bint Qays came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) seeking his permission and his consultation and she mentioned that both Mu’aawiyah Ibn Abee Sufyaan and Aboo Jahm had proposed to her.  So he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) replied, “As for Mu’aawiyah, then he is very poor and has no wealth and as for Aboo Jahm, then his staff does not leave his shoulder.”  Then he said, “Marry Usaamah.” [Related by Muslim (no. 1480)] To the end of the hadeeth.”

[2]: Refer to: هل باب الجرح والتعديل يختص بعلم الرواية فقط وأن هذا الباب قد أغلق؟

Translation by Maaz Qureshi