Prophetic Guidelines for Protection And Safety from Trials and Misguidance – al-’Allaamah Rabee’ Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee

lubaabbookIndeed, I advise myself and you with the taqwaa [1] of Allaah and ikhlaas (sincerity) [2] to Him and steadfastness upon the truth and holding fast to the Book and the Sunnah and that which the Salafus-Saalih were upon in terms of beliefs, acts of worship, manhaj (methodology) and moral character. I counsel you with these matters and advise that you give them the utmost importance.  You must direct your attention to them and form the mutual bonds of brotherhood amongst yourselves and you must inculcate mutual love amongst yourselves.  You must utilize the causes the mutual love, affection and unity and you must distance yourselves from stirring up trials and dilemmas.  And you must distance yourselves from the causes of disagreement amongst yourselves.  So such causes are many, so avoid them.

And strive to memorize the Book of Allaah and whatever you are able from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and study the books of the recognized people of knowledge as well as the writings of the recognized Imaams from the Imaams of the Sunnah.  And distance yourselves from the books of desires and misguidance, because many of those who follow up and read the likes of these books and audio recordings fall into deviations.

Indeed, the Salaf warned against such perils.  The books and audio recordings of fitan (trials, tribulations) and innovations cause many of the people to fall into errors and mistakes.  And the Salaf used to warn against the books of the people of misguidance.  Rather, the Companions (radiyallaahu ’anhum) burned some of the masaahif (written copies of the Qur‘aan) in order to unite the Ummah upon one mushaf.

So there are many fallacies and theories that many of the people use to deceive some of the youth.  One such fallacy is the statement that: We will read all of the books, including the books of misguidance and we will take the truth and abandon the falsehood from them.

And the reality is that this is a trap and an artifice set to ensnare the Salafee youth.  So the youth who does not have a firm grasp of the knowledge and he is not well versed in the Salafee manhaj, he becomes prone to error and deviation when he reads the books of the people of misguidance and falsehood.

And many of the youth have actually been deceived by this cunning statement.  So they begin to read and listen and the end result is deviation.

And the Messenger (’alayhis-salaatu was-salaam) advised that during the days of disagreements and splitting we must hold fast to his Sunnah and his guidance and the Sunnah and guidance of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.

And the individual will not obtain the knowledge of the Sunnah and guidance of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the guidance of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, except by exerting all of his effort in learning this Sunnah and this guidance and by turning his back to the statements of the dissenters and renegades.

So strive your utmost in learning the Sunnah and guidance of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and hold fast to it and bite onto it with your molar teeth and beware of newly invented affairs, as our Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has advised. [3] So by Allaah, this is the way to escape the trials and in it is the safety.  And that is the ark of salvation, may Allaah bless you.

So these are the Prophetic guidelines so revere and respect them.  And know that opposing them leads to deviation – and refuge is sought with Allaah.  Not being concerned with them, not giving them importance and not being mindful of them; all of that leads to deviation and falling into newly invented affairs.  So the individual is not safe from falling into the newly invented affairs, except if he holds fast to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the guidance of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (radiyallaahu ’anhum).

And that cannot occur, except by serious study and mindfulness and full comprehension of this Sunnah in the areas of ’aqeedah (creed), ’ibaadah (worship), manhaj (methodology) and in all fields of life.  And ignorance of that or carelessness in it leads to falling into innovations and misguidance, which are the newly invented affairs mentioned in the hadeeth, “And the most evil of affairs are the newly invented ones,” [4] as occurs in the hadeeth of Jaabir (radiyallaahu ’anhu) collected in Saheeh Muslim.

So it is upon you to take these advices and counsels and warnings from the noble Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and with that our beliefs and methodologies and moral character will remain safe if Allaah so wills.

And I advise you to maintain amongst yourselves mutual friendship, mercy and affection.  And be zealous taking to the good and blessed means that bring about unity and love and distance yourselves from the causes of mutual hatred, jealousy, differing and whatever resembles that from that which has occurred amongst many of the youth.

Hold fast to calling to Allaah the Glorified and Exalted with wisdom and a good admonition.  Call the people: people of innovation and desires and partisanship and the Jews and the Christians and other than them.  Call them to Allaah with wisdom and a good admonition and proofs and evidence.  “That Allaah guides a single man through you is better for you than red camels.” [5]

And strive to be upon steadfastness with regards to this magnificent manhaj in the manner to which we have alluded.  And strive to guide the people.  And that cannot occur, except if you first arm yourselves with knowledge and arm yourselves with the wisdom, which is accompanied by proof and evidence.

And the people are in dire need of this goodness, which is exemplified by the Salafee manhaj, which emanates from the Book of Allaah and from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).  And if the Muslims were to hold fast to this manhaj in truth, then you would surely see many people from these nations accepting Islaam and taking to it.

However, many of the Muslims who live amongst the Europeans and the Americans and others than them have deviations in their beliefs, their acts of worship, their moral character and in the rest of their dealings.  These deviations have disfigured the image and beauty of Islaam and they have run the people away.  If they were to present the real image of Islaam to the people, then you would see how they would rush to accept Islaam.

However, we say with great regret, as it was said by other than us: The Muslims have distorted Islaam and have run the enemies of Islaam away from it and from themselves.  That goes back to the ignorance or misguidance that many are living in from the sects that become widespread in those lands and it is due to the evil dealings and evil moral character which gives others a distorted view of Islaam.  So exemplify Islaam, as it is said.  And implement Islaam as a Religion and a creed and moral code of behaviour.  If Allaah so wills, Allaah will guide many of the enemies of Islaam, such as the Christians and the Jews at your hands.  Likewise, people will turn from all direction towards the truth the correct path, from those who are currently deviated by these sects within which you live and work and about whom many of you have complained.

We ask Allaah to unite between our hearts and to take us by our forelocks to the truth and to goodness.  Indeed, our Lord hears the supplication. [6]

Endnotes:

[1]: Translator’s Note: Talq Ibn Habeeb (d.100H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Taqwaa is acting in obedience to Allaah, hoping in His mercy, upon guidance from Him; and taqwaa is leaving acts of disobedience to Allaah out of fear of Him, upon guidance from Him.”  Related by Ibn Abee Shaybah in Kitaab al-Eemaan (no. 99).  It was declared saheeh by al-Albaanee in his checking of the same book.

[2]: Translator’s Note: Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Due to this, the Imaams of the Salaf (rahimahumullaah) had a consensus upon these two fundamental principles.  So al-Fuḍayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) commented concerning the statement of Allaah the Blessed and Exalted, “So that He may test which of you is best in deed.” [Sooratul-Mulk 67:2] He said, “It is that which is most sincere and most correct.”  So it was said, “O Abaa ’Alee!  What is most sincere and most correct?”  So he replied, ‘The deed that is correct but not sincere is not accepted.  And if it is sincere but not correct, then it is likewise not accepted; not until it is both sincere and correct.  And sincere means that it must be done only for the sake of Allaah and correct means that it must be in accordance to the Sunnah.”  Refer to Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (3/124) of Ibn Taymiyyah.

[3]: Translator’s Note: This is an allusion to the well-known hadeeth: From al-’Irbaad Ibn Saariyah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) admonished us with an intense sermon which caused the hearts to tremble and the eyes to shed tears, so we said, “O Messenger of Allaah!  It seems that this is a farewell sermon, so advise us.”  He replied, “I advise you with the fear of Allaah and to listen and obey even if the one granted authority over you is a slave.  So whoever lives long amongst you will see many disagreements.  So hold fast to my Sunnah and the way of the Rightly Guided Caliphs after me.  Bite onto that with your molar teeth and beware of the newly invented affairs, since every innovation is misguidance.”  Related by Aboo Daawood (no. 4607) and at-Tirmidhee (no. 2676), Ibn Maajah (no. 42-43).  It was declared saheeh by al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 2549).

[4]: Related by Muslim (no. 867), from the hadeeth of Jaabir Ibn ’Abdullaah (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[5]: Related by al-Bukhaaree (no. 2942) and Muslim (no. 2406), from the hadeeth of Sahl Ibn Sad (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[6]: Refer to al-Lubaab min Majmoo’ Nasaa‘ih wa Tawjeehaat ash-Shaykh Rabee’ lish-Shabaab (p.275-279), the al-Miraathun-Nabawee printing.

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan: Being Silent About the People of Innovation and not Clarifying their Falsehood is from the Greatest Forms of Deceiving the Muslims

The ’Allaamah, the Shaykh, Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan may Allaah preserve him was asked the following question:

“Is not refuting the people of innovation and concealing their falsehood and defending them from deceiving the Muslims?”

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan replied,

“This is from major deception of the Muslims, being silent about the people of innovation (bid’ah) and not clarifying their bid’ah, this is from deceiving the Muslims and if in addition to that he praised them (the innovators) than this is worse and more evil… and refuge is sought with Allaah.

So what is obligatory upon those who have knowledge is to make clear the innovations and newly invented matters (in the religion) and to prohibit them and warn against these innovations and to not be silent because indeed silence is from concealing (knowledge) (Allaah says:)

Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allaah and cursed by the cursers. Except those who repent and do righteous deeds, and openly declare (the truth which they concealed). These are the ones who I will accept their repentance. And I am the One Who accepts repentance, and the Most Merciful.” [Sooratul-Baqarah 2:159-160]

It is not permissible for the Muslim that has knowledge to be silent about bid’ah and oppositions (in the religion) and he is to make them clear to the people because if he was silent, the people will use (his silence) as proof, and they will say if this was unlawful or prohibited, the scholar so and so would of not been silent about it and he sees it (innovation, opposition).

Translation by Talhah Payne

Advice of Imaam Muqbil Ibn Haadee al-Waadi’ee (d.1421H) to Pray the ’Eed Prayers with Ahlus-Sunnah

[Q]: We are youth of Ahlus-Sunnah from the city of Baytul-Faqeeh.  We do not have a musallaa (place of Prayer) for ourselves in which we may pray the ’Eed Prayer.  However, there is a common musallaa within the city and the khateeb (speaker) is a Soofee and there are others there who are Surooriyyeen.  Due to that, we travel to a neighbouring town that is five kilometers away from us.  Due to this, we find criticisms from some of our brothers who say, ‘This is considered splitting up the unity of the Muslims.  So what is your instruction concerning that?  May Allaah preserve you.

tamayyuz[A]: That which we advise with is at-Tamayyuz (being distinct and clearly distinguished).  So how can you pray behind a Soofee who propagates his Soofiyyah?!!  And the Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Whosoever from amongst you sees an evil, then let him change it with his hand.  So if he is unable to do that, then let him speak out against it with his tongue.  So if he is unable to do that, then let him hate it within his heart.  And that is the weakest of eemaan (faith).” [1]

And safety from fitan (trials, tribulations) comes through keeping a distance from the innovators and remaining near beneficial knowledge and calling to Allaah.  This is what is required.  May Allaah bless you.

As for those who discourage you from this, then they are either infiltrators amongst Ahlus-Sunnah from the Ikhwaanul-Muslimoon, or they are from Ahlus-Sunnah, but they are not familiar with the plots of the hizbiyyeen (biased partisans).

So we advise all of Ahlus-Sunnah to make themselves clearly distinguished and distinct (tamayyuz) with regards to the ’Eed Prayers, the Jumu’ah Prayers and the rest of the Prayers that take place within the mosque and outside of it.  At-Tamayyuz is absolutely necessary.  After that, the people will come if Allaah so wills, as long as you select a khateeb (speaker) who has benefited in knowledge to the extent that he can benefit the people and he has wisdom.  The people will come, with the permission of Allaah, and pray with you and abandon that Soofee.

So I raise a complaint to Allaah with regards to these brothers of ours from Ahlus-Sunnah.  He may be a Sunnee, one who loves goodness, but he says the likes of this!!  Leave alone those who say this.  Allaah says,

Had they gone forth with you, they would not have increased you except in confusion, and they would have been active amongst you.” [Sooratut-Tawbah 9:47]

So we keep a distance from the innovators and from those who have diseased hearts.  And we establish the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).  And Allaah the Glorified and Exalted says in His Noble Book,

And keep yourself patient by being with those who call upon their Lord in the morning and the evening, seeking His countenance. And let not your eyes pass beyond them, desiring adornments of the worldly life, and do not obey one whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance and who follows his desire and whose affair is ever in neglect.” [Sooratul-Kahf 18:28]

So we are not concerned in the least with the speech of the innovators.  They will not be pleased up until you become innovators like them.  So from the beginning of the affair, we have isolated ourselves from the innovators and we continue to isolate ourselves from the innovation.  And Allaah is One from Whom aid is sought. [2]

Endnotes:

[1]: Related by Muslim (no. 49), Aboo Daawood (no. 1140), Ibn Maajah (no. 4013) and an-Nisaa‘ee (8/111).

[2]: Refer to the audio cassette: As‘ilah min Baytil-Faqeeh of Muqbil Ibn Haadee.

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

The Principle of Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah is Affirmed in Our Times – Part 3

Benefit: How People are Known:

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330),

Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo'ul-Fataawaa (15/330).
Statement of Ibn Taymiyyah from Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/330).

“And knowledge about the conditions of the people comes through the testimonies of people at times and through al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel at times and through testing and trial at times.”

Important Note:

lummBefore moving into the rest of the article, we recommend that the reader peruse, “Testing Individuals by their Love or Hatred of Ahlus-Sunnah,” since it contains several examples of the Salaf speaking about testing people with love for the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah and hatred for the heads of innovation. The series of statements from the Salaf was derived mainly from Jamaal Ibn Furayhaan al-Haarithee’s collection, Lammud-Durril-Manthoor, which has received critical acclaim from Scholars such as Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-’Uthaymeen (d.1421H), Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan and Saalih Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez aalush-Shaykh, along with supplementary material from other works. However, this series will deal specifically with applying this principle of Ahlus-Sunnah in our times.

In the third and final part of this series, we present the essay of the noble Scholar, the Imaam of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel in our times, al-’Allaamah Rabee’ Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee – hafidhahullaah.  So let us move on, in haste, to the words of the Shaykh…

What is the Ruling in Islaam Concerning Testing the People of Desires and Other Than Them?

The Imaam, the Mujaahid, Shaykh Rabee’ Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee – hafidhahullaahu ta’aalaa said,

الحمد لله، والصَّلاة والسَّلام على رسُول الله، وعلى آله وصحبه، ومن اتَّبع هداه

So there is an abundance of speech surrounding the issue of testing the individuals from the people of desires and other than them.  So I saw that it was obligatory to clarify the ruling of Islaam concerning it, relying upon the Qur‘aan and the Sunnah and the positions and statements of the Imaams of Islaam and the Sunnah concerning this affair, so that the Muslim could be upon clear insight and proof about the affair.

As for the Qur‘aan, then Allaah the Exalted said,

O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allaah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful (wives) for them, nor are they lawful (husbands) for them.” [Sooratul-Mumtahinah 60:10]

As for the Sunnah, then the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) tested the slave girl.  He said to her, “Where is Allaah?”  She replied, “Above the heavens.”  He said, “Who am I?”  She replied, “You are the Messenger of Allaah.”  So he said to her master, Mu’aawiyah Ibnul-Hakam as-Sulamee, “Free her, since she is a Believer.” [1]

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“So when a person wants to accompany a Believer, or a Believer wants to accompany someone, but immorality has been mentioned about him and it is said that he has repented from it, regardless of whether what said was true or false, then he must test the person with that which will make his immorality or righteousness apparent.  Likewise, when he wants to grant someone leadership, he must test him, as ’Umar Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez commanded his servant to test Ibn Abee Moosaa.  So the servant said to him, “Indeed, you know my status with the Leader of the Believers.  So how much will you give me if I were to suggest you as a leader to him?”  So he gathered a large amount of wealth for him.  So ’Umar knew that he was not fit for leadership.  Likewise is the case with social dealings.  And likewise is the case with servant boys and owners about whom it is known or about whom it has been said that they indulge in immorality.  So when a man wants to buy him, he must test him, since the effeminate male is like the prostitute and his tawbah (repentance) is like her tawbah.  And knowledge about the conditions of the people comes through the testimonies of people at times and through al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel at times and through testing and trial at times.” [2]

So these tests are warranted for the one who does not dispute with the people of truth and he does not ally himself with the people of falsehood.  So what about the people of falsehood themselves and the one who does dispute with the people of truth and he allies himself with the people of falsehood?

And as for the Salafus-Saalih who acted upon the Book and the Sunnah, then they made the test (imtihaan) the gauge by which they distinguished between Ahlus-Sunnah and the people of innovation and desires and between the trustworthy individuals from the narrators of hadeeth and the liars, the heedless and the weak ones.  So from the Imaams from whom the imtihaan has been quoted are:

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Seereen (d.110H) – rahimahullaah,

“Indeed, this knowledge is Religion.  So look from whom you take your Religion.” [3]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“They did not used to ask about the isnaad (chain of narration).  So when the fitnah (trial, tribulation) occurred, they said, ‘Name to us your men.’  So look to Ahlus-Sunnah and take their hadeeth.  And look to the people of innovation and do not take their hadeeth.” [4]

So even though Ahlul-Hadeeth narrated from the people of innovation with conditions, from them was truthfulness, proficient memorization and trustworthiness, but the affair of al-imtihaan did not cease to be utilized by them.  And they did not distinguish between Ahlus-Sunnah and the people of innovation, except by studying the conditions of the men and testing them through the methods that are well known to the people of knowledge.

And al-’Allaamah ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Yahyaa al-Mu’allimee (d.1386H) – rahimahullaah – said in his book, ’Ilmur-Rijaal wa Ahammiyyatuhu, whilst he was speaking about al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel,

“Then came the time of the atbaa’ut-taabi’een (i.e. the third righteous generation of Muslims).  So the weak narrators, the heedless ones, the liars and the heretics became abundant.  So the Imaams embarked upon clarifying the conditions of the narrators and declaring the falsity of that which was not confirmed.  So no land remained from the lands of the Muslims, except that there was a group of Imaams therein testing the narrators and trialing their conditions and the conditions of their narrations and following up their movements and their moments of inactivity and openly proclaiming to the people the ruling upon them.” [5]

And he – rahimahullaah – said,

“Ways to test the narrators:

And the Imaams had ways to test the narrators.  From them was looking into the condition of the narrator (raawee) with regards to his safeguarding the acts the obedience and remaining away from disobedience and asking the people who knew him.

Al-Hasan Ibn Saalih Ibn Hayy said, ‘When we wanted to write from a man, we would ask about him up until it would we said, ‘Do you want to marry him off?” [6]

And from the ways of testing is that when he narrates ahaadeeth from a Shaykh who is living, to ask that Shaykh about these ahaadeeth.

And an example of this is the statement of Shu’bah (d.160H) who said, “Al-Hasan Ibn ’Amaarah said: al-Hakam informed me from Yahyaa Ibnul-Jazaar of seven ahaadeeth from ’Alee.  So I asked al-Hakam about those.  So he replied, “I have not heard anything from them.” [7]

And from the ways of testing is when he narrates from a Shaykh who has already died.  So it must be said to the narrator: When were you born?  And when did you meet this Shaykh?  And where did you meet him?  Then compare between his answers and what has been documented about the death of the Shaykh from whom he claims to be narrating and the place of his residence and the histories of his travels.

An example of this is what has come from ’Afeer Ibn Ma’daan that ’Umar Ibn Moosaa Ibn Wujayh narrated from Khaalid Ibn Ma’daan.  ’Afeer said, ‘So I said to him, “In which year did you meet him?”  He replied, “In the year 158H, during the military expeditions to Armenia.”  I said, “Fear Allaah O Shaykh!  Do not lie.  Khaalid died in the year 154H. [8] I say to you additionally that he did not travel in a military expedition to Armenia.” [9]

And from the ways is to listen to the narrator of ahaadeeth from mashaayikh who have died.  And then present these ahaadeeth to the trustworthy narrators who narrate from these mashaayikh.  Then look to see if this narrator differs individually with something from their narrations, or opposes them, or adds onto them or omits something from them.  So you will find them saying in the books of al-Jarh (disparagement, criticism), “He differed individually from the trustworthy narrators.” And, “There are manaakeer (rejected narrations) in his hadeeth.”  And, “He errs and mixes up narrations,” and the likes of that. [10]

Imaam Ahmad Ibn ’Abdullaah Ibn Yoonus (d.227H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Test the people of al-Mawsil with Mu’aafaa Ibn ’Imraan.  So if they love him, then they are Ahlus-Sunnah and if they hate him, then they are people of innovation.  Likewise, test the people of al-Koofah with Yahyaa.” [11]

Imaam Nu’aym Ibn Hammaad (d.228H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a person from al-’Iraaq speaking about Ahmad, then doubt his Religion.  And if you see a person from al-Khurasaan speaking about Ishaaq Ibn Raahawayh (d.238H), then doubt his Religion.  And if you see a person from al-Basrah speaking about Wahb Ibn Jareer, then doubt his Religion.” [12]

And Ja’far Ibn Abee ’Uthmaan at-Tiyaalisee said: I heard Yahyaa Ibn Ma’een (d.233H) – rahimahullaah – saying,

“When you see a man speaking about Hammaad Ibn Salamah (d.167H) and ’Ikrimah (d.13H) the freed slave of Ibn ’Abbaas (radiyallaahu ’anhumaa), then doubt his Islaam.” [13]

And Imaam ’Alee Ibnul-Madeenee (d.234H) – rahimahullaah – said in his ’aqeedah,

“And if you see a man loving Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) and supplicating for him and asking Allaah to have mercy upon him, then have hope for him to attain goodness and know that he is absolved from innovations.  And if you see a man loving ’Umar Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez (d.101H) and mentioning his good qualities and spreading them, then know that this will lead to goodness if Allaah so wills.  And when you see a man from the people of al-Basrah relying upon Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee (d.131H) and Ibn ’Awn (d.151H) and Yoonus and at-Taymee and loving them and mentioning their good qualities often and taking them as examples, then have hope that he will attain goodness.  Then after those ones came Hammaad Ibn Salamah and Mu’aadh Ibn Mu’aadh and Wahb Ibn Jareer.  So these ones are a trial for the people of innovation.  And when you see a man from the people of al-Koofah relying upon Talhah Ibn Musrif and Ibn Abjar and Ibn Hayyaan at-Taymee and Maalik Ibn Maghool and Sufyaan Ibn Sa’eed ath-Thawree (d.167H) and Zaa‘idah, then have hope for him.  And after them came ’Abdullaah Ibn Idrees and Muhammad Ibn ’Ubayd and Ibn Abee ’Utbah and al-Muhaaribee, so have hope for the one who praises them.” [14]

And Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man defaming Hammaad Ibn Salamah, then doubt his Islaam.” [15]

And Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d.256H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“’Ubaydullaah Ibn Sa’eed said: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee (d.198H) saying after mentioning a hadeeth, “And when you see a man from al-Koofah mentioning Maalik Ibn Maghool, then trust him.” [16]

And Imaam Aboo Haatim ar-Raazee (d.277H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a Raazee and other than him hating Abaa Zur’ah (d.264H), then know that he is an innovator.” [17]

And Imaam Ahmad Ibn Asram Ibn Khuzaymah al-Maghfalee (d.285H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man from al-Anbaar loving Abaa Ja’far al-Hidhaa‘ and Muthannaa Ibn Jaami’ al-Anbaaree, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [18]

And Imaam ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee (d.198H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man from the Hijaaz, loving Maalik Ibn Anas (d.179H), then he is a person of Sunnah,” and he said in the narration of Muhammad Ibn Muslim, “When you see a man from al-Madeenah loving Maalik…” [19]

And Aswad Ibn Saalim – rahimahullaah – said,

“Ibnul-Mubaarak was an Imaam to be followed.  He was from the most steadfast of the people upon the Sunnah.  When you see a man slandering Ibnul-Mubaarak (d.181H) with something, then doubt his Islaam.” [20]

And Aboo Muhammad Ibn Abee Haatim ar-Raazee (d.327H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Chapter: The one who loves Hammaad Ibn Zayd (d.179H) is worthy of the Sunnah.  Ubayy and Muhammad Ibn Muslim Ibn Muslim narrated to us saying: We heard Hammaad Ibn Zaadaan saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from al-Basrah loving Hammaad Ibn Zayd, then he is a person of Sunnah.” [21]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“Chapter: A person who passes the trial of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal is worthy of the Sunnah.  Ahmad Ibn Qaasim Ibn ’Atiyyah related to us saying: I heard ’Abdullaah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Shabawayh al-Marwazee saying: I heard Abaa Rajaa‘ – meaning Qutaybah Ibn Sa’eed (d.240H) – saying: When you see a man loving Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, then know that he is a person of Sunnah and Jamaa’ah…”

And he said: I heard Abaa Ja’far Muhammad Ibn Haaroon al-Makhramee, commonly known as al-Falaas, saying,

“When you see a man finding fault with Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H), then know that he is a misguided innovator.” [22]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“Chapter what is hoped from goodness for the one who loves al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H).  Saalih Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.266H) related to us: Ibnul-Madeenee related to us saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan – meaning Ibn Mahdee – saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam loving al-Awzaa’ee and Abaa Ishaaq al-Fazaaree, then have hope that he will attain goodness.”

And he said,

“My father related to us: Aboo Ziyaad Hammaad Ibn Zaadaan related to us saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam loving al-Awzaa’ee and Abaa Ishaaq al-Fazaaree, then he is a person of Sunnah.” [23]

And he – rahimahullaah – also said,

“Chapter: The one who loves Abee Ishaaq al-Fazaaree is worthy of the Sunnah.  My father related to me saying: I heard Hammaad Ibn Zaadaan saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam loving al-Awzaa’ee and Abaa Ishaaq al-Fazaaree, then he is a person of Sunnah.”

Ahmad Ibn Salamah an-Naysaabooree related to us: Aboo Qudaamah ’Ubaydullaah Ibn Sa’eed related to us saying: I heard ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee saying: When you see a man from ash-Shaam mentioning al-Awzaa’ee and al-Fazaaree – meaning, with goodness – then trust him.” [24]

And Aboo Ahmad al-Haakim (d.378H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“And when you see a man loving Sufyaan ath-Thawree and Maalik Ibn Anas and Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee and ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Awn and Yoonus Ibn ’Ubayd (d.139H) and Sulaymaan at-Taymee and Shareek (d.177H) and Abul-Ahwas and al-Fudayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) and Sufyaan Ibn ’Uyaynah (d.197H) and al-Layth Ibn Sa’d (d.175H) and Ibnul-Mubaarak and Wakee’ Ibnul-Jarraah (d.197H) and Yahyaa Ibn Sa’eed (d.198H) and ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee and Yahyaa Ibn Yahyaa and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Ishaaq Ibn Raahawayh, then know that he is upon the path.  And when you see a man saying these individuals are doubtful, then be wary of him, since is not upon the path.” [25]

And Aboo ’Abdullaah Ibn Battah (d.387H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a man from al-’Ukbar loving Abaa Hafs Ibn Rajaa‘, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [26]

And he also said,

“When you see a man from al-Baghdaad loving Abul-Hasan Ibn Bashaar and Abaa Muhammad al-Barbahaaree (d.329H), then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [27]

And Muhammad Ibn ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee – rahimahullaah – said,

“Al-Awzaa’ee and al-Fazaaree were two Imaams of the Sunnah.  When you see a man from ash-Shaam mentioning al-Awzaa’ee and al-Fazaaree, then trust him.  They were Imaams of the Sunnah.” [28]

And Abul-Husayn Muhammad Ibn Ibraaheem Ibn Shu’ayb al-Ghaazee at-Tabaree – rahimahullaah – said,

“When you see a Raazee and a Khuraasaanee loving Abaa Haatim and Abaa Zur’ah, then know that he is a person of Sunnah.” [29] [30]

So this is a widely accepted manhaj and a well-known truth.  And it is widespread amongst Ahlus-Sunnah and it is an unsheathed sword against the people of innovation.  And from the signs of the people of innovation is that they reject it and they find fault with Ahlus-Sunnah and revile them for it.  So when you hear a man finding fault with Ahlus-Sunnah, then know that he is from the people of desires and innovation, except if he is ignorant.  So in that case, teach him and clarify to him that this imtihaan (test) for the people of desires is an affair that is legislated by the Sharee’ah and it is proven by the Book and the Sunnah and the deeds of the Salaf.  No one is troubled by it and condemns it, except the people of innovation, because it disgraces them and it lays bare whatever they conceal from innovations.

وصلَّى اللهُ على نَبيِّنا محمَّدٍ، وعلى آله وصحبه وسلّم

Written by,
Rabee’ Ibn Haadee ’Umayr al-Madkhalee
8/25/1433H

Endnotes:

[1]: Related by Muslim (no. 537) and Ahmad in al-Musnad (5/447).

[2]: Refer to Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (15/329-330) of Ibn Taymiyyah.

[3]: Refer to Muqaddimah Saheeh Muslim (p. 14).

[4]: Refer to Muqaddimah Saheeh Muslim (p. 15).

[5]: Refer to ’Ilmur-Rijaal wa Ahammiyyatuhu (p. 20) of al-Mu’allimee.

[6]: Refer to al-Kifaayah (p. 155) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee.

[7]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (8/326) of al-Khateeb, with the checking of Dr. Bashaar ’Awaad Ma’roof.

[8]: The correct view is that Khaalid died in the year 104H, as has been related by al-’Uqaylee in ad-Du’afaa‘ (3/191).  And refer to al-Meezaan (3/225) of adh-Dhahabee.

[9]: Refer to ad-Du’afaa‘ (3/191) of al-’Uqaylee and al-Meezaan (3/225) of adh-Dhahabee.

[10]: Refer to ’Ilmur-Rijaal wa Ahammiyyatuhu (p. 22-24) of al-Mu’allimee.

[11]: Refer to Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah (1/74) of al-Laalikaa‘ee.

[12]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (6/348-349) of al-Khateeb and Siyar A’laamun-Nubalaa‘ (11/381) of adh-Dhahabee and Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb (1/191) of Ibn Hajr.

[13]: Refer to Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah (3/568) of al-Laalikaa‘ee.

[14]: Refer to Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah (1/191-192) of al-Laalikaa‘ee.

[15]: Refer to Tadhkiratul-Huffaadh (1/203) of adh-Dhahabee.

[16]: Refer to at-Taareekhul-Kabeer (7/314) of al-Bukhaaree.

[17]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (10/329) of al-Khateeb.

[18]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (13/174) of al-Khateeb.

[19]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/25) of Ibn Abee Haatim ar-Raazee.

[20]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (10/168) of al-Khateeb.

[21]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/183) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[22]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/308-309) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[23]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/217) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[24]: Refer to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/284-285) of Ibn Abee Haatim.

[25]: Refer to Shi’aar Ashaabil-Hadeeth (p. 32-33) of al-Haakim.

[26]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (11/239) of al-Khateeb.

[27]: Refer to Taareekh Baghdaad (12/67) of al-Khateeb.

[28]: Refer to Hilyatul-Awliyaa‘ (8/254) of Aboo Nu’aym al-Asbahaanee.

[29]: Refer to Tahdheebul-Kamaal (24/389) of al-Mizzee.

[30]: Refer to Ta‘ammulaat fee Kitaab Rifqan Ahlas-Sunnah bi Ahlis-Sunnah (p. 109-114) of al-’Awfee.

Translation by Maaz Qureshi

Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ’Umar Baazmool Answers Doubts about al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel

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jarhRecently, Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool gave a lecture via tele-link to the Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah Institute in Benghazi, Libya after the Maghrib Prayer on the 4th of Sha’baan, 1434H, entitled: Juhoodus-Salaf fee Siyaanatis-Sunnah wat-Tahdheer minal-Bida’ wa Ahlihi (Exertion of the Salaf in Safeguarding the Sunnah and Warning against Innovation and its People). In this lecture, he addressed the following doubts concerning al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel:

  1. The science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel was confined to the time of the hadeeth narrators and does not exist in our times.
  2. The science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is confined to criticism of hadeeth narrators and criticizing the people of innovation is not included within it.

Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ’Umar Baazmool – hafidhahullaah – said,

“And the speech concerning al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is not limited to the narrators of hadeeth.  Rather, Ahlus-Sunnah speak in terms of jarh (criticism) and ta’deel (praise) with regards to everyone who embarks upon conveying knowledge and Religion.  Due to that, Ibn Seereen (d.110H) and other than him from amongst the Salaf mentioned, “Indeed, this knowledge is Religion.  So look to whom you take your Religion.”

And there occurs that some of the Salaf said, “When they wanted to take the hadeeth from an individual, they would ask about him so much so that the people would think they wanted to marry that individual off.”

And this should clarify to you that the door of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is open up until the Hour, or up until knowledge has ended, because the topic knowledge is necessarily in need of confirmation (tathabbut).  Confirmation (at-tathabbut) is inescapable.  So the one who is unknown, or majhoolul-’adaalah (i.e. his integrity is unknown), then his hadeeth is not accepted, as is proven by the understanding of the statement of Allaah the Glorified and Exalted.  So the benefit learned from this aayah is that the news conveyed by the faasiq (disobedient sinner) is not accepted.  And the understanding of this aayah is that news conveyed by the one whose integrity is unknown is also not accepted, because this aayah means that we are obligated by justice to accept news from the one who is upright and whose integrity is known.  And as for the one whose integrity is not known, then his news is not accepted.  Due to that, it is inevitable that we must not accept news, except from one is known for integrity (’adaalah) and the Scholars have testified that for him.

And news (khabr) here refers to information unrestrictedly, regardless of whether it is concerning the narrators of hadeeth, or if it is information about issues of knowledge and Religion, or any type of general information.  So we do not accept news, except from an upright person whose integrity is well known.  And upon this foundation, the science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is not confined to the topic hadeeth narrators.  Rather, it is in every topic of information.

And I intend by the topic of narrators: the topic of hadeeth and the narrators of hadeeth and those who document the hadeeth.

Therefore, we have speech concerning the narrators in terms of jarh and ta’deel and speech about all those who embark upon conveying knowledge, up until their integrity is known so their news is accepted, or their integrity is unknown, so one refrains and does not accept their news.”

Shaykh Muhammad has an article clarifying the same issues, therein he says,

“So the science of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel and the speech concerning it is not closed up until the Hour is established, as long as there is Islaam.  Why?!  I say: The affair of testimonies in court and feuds and disputes are established upon the foundation of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  So as long as mankind exists, then there will be disagreement there will be feuding and dispute.  And as long as there is a dispute, then there will be courts and judges.  And as long as there are judges, then it is inevitable that there will be judges.  And it is inevitable that there will be those who will vouch for them.  So due to this, al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel cannot be confined to a time, nor a place.  We only say that as long as Islaam exists, then al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel will exist.  And the least significant of topics that I am mentioning to you is the topic of testimonies, it is well known from the topics of fiqh (jurisprudence) and whatever results from that such as the topics of judgement, the courts and the disputes.  There is also whatever is connected to the application of Allaah’s judgements, for example: killing the game in the state of ihraam.  Two trustworthy witnesses from amongst you must testify to this.  It means that al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is inescapable, in order to distinguish the one who possesses integrity from the others.  So if they are disparaged (jarh), then their speech is not accepted.  And such is the case with the other topics in the Sharee’ah which necessitate al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  Based upon this, we say: speaking about the men in terms of jarh (criticism) and ta’deel (praise) is from the sciences connected to al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.

Take for example the topic of seeking knowledge and the etiquette of seeking knowledge.  As long as Islaam exists and Islaamic knowledge is sought, then al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel will exist.  One of the Salaf said, “When they wanted to take the hadeeth from an individual, they would ask about him so much so that the people would think they wanted to marry that individual off.” And another said, “Indeed, this knowledge is Religion.  So look to whom you take your Religion.” What is the meaning of this speech?  The meaning of this speech is that you will be in need of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel as long as you are in search of Islaamic knowledge. [1] So who says that al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel is specific only to the chain of narrators in the asaaneed, meaning the biographical books about the narrators only, who says this?!  Islaam’s adaptation varies with regards to this.  You are in need of knowing al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel in very many affairs from the issues that have been mentioned by the Scholars in the topic of the Prayer and the issue of praying behind a proponent of innovation. Speaking out against the person of innovation is al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  Speaking about the conditions of the people with regards to innovation and the Sunnah is speech about al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  In the topic of medicine and medical treatment, the Scholars have stipulated that the speech of a trustworthy Muslim physician is accepted.  This means, that there could be a Muslim physician who is not trustworthy.  And to say that he is not trustworthy is al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel.  And when we arrive at the affairs of da’wah, a caller comes and says that he is a caller to Islaam and he wants to invite us, for example.  This is an affair of seeking knowledge and we must know that this caller has been praised by the people of knowledge, or he has not been praised by the people of knowledge!  Therefore, it cannot be said, “O my brother, al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel has ended and its time has passed and it is connected to the narrators and there is not jarh or ta’deel amongst us now.”

Shaykh al-Albaanee (d.1420H) is a sign from amongst the signs in this age in hadeeth.  He described Shaykh Rabee’ as the flag bearer of al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel in these times!!  So if this description was inapplicable, then the first of the people to reject it and not use it in reference to a man living in these times would have been Shaykh al-Albaanee, because he was from the people who specialized in it.  And Allaah knows best.” [2]

Endnotes:

[1]: BENEFIT: The understanding described by Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool for al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel existed well before the fourteenth century, much to the dismay of its deniers today. One such example is Imaam Muhammad Ibn Ismaa’eel as-San’aanee (d.1189H).  In his commentary on Bulooghul-Maraam, entitled Subulus-Salaam, in the 4th volume of the Maktabatul-Ma’aarif print, with the comments of al-Albaanee (d.1420H), as-San’aanee says on (p. 554) whilst speaking about the exceptions to gheebah (backbiting),

Statement of Muhammad Ibn Ismaa'eel as-San'aanee (d.1189H)
Statement of Muhammad Ibn Ismaa’eel as-San’aanee (d.1189H)

Fourthly: Warning the Muslims against deception, such as jarh (criticism) of the narrator and the witnesses and whosoever puts himself forward to teach and to issue religious verdicts without being qualified.  And the proof is the statement of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), “What an evil brother he is to his family.” [Related by al-Bukhaaree (no. 6032).] And the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “As for Mu’aawiyah, then he is very poor.” And that occurred when Faatimah Bint Qays came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) seeking his permission and his consultation and she mentioned that both Mu’aawiyah Ibn Abee Sufyaan and Aboo Jahm had proposed to her.  So he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) replied, “As for Mu’aawiyah, then he is very poor and has no wealth and as for Aboo Jahm, then his staff does not leave his shoulder.”  Then he said, “Marry Usaamah.” [Related by Muslim (no. 1480)] To the end of the hadeeth.”

[2]: Refer to: هل باب الجرح والتعديل يختص بعلم الرواية فقط وأن هذا الباب قد أغلق؟

Translation by Maaz Qureshi